Possible applications:

Procyanidolic oligomers (PCOs) are also known as leukocyanidins or pycnogenols and are complexes of  flavinoids (polyphenols) which usually come from the skin of the grape seed, although they may come from Landes' pine bark, the bracts of a lime tree or the leaves of a hazel nut tree.   PCOs will help increase intracellular vitamin C level, decrease capillary permeability and fragility, scavenge oxidants and free radicals, and uniquely bind to collagen structures in such a manner as will allow the collagen structure to remain protected from destructive forces.   This quality of vitamin is known as vitamin 'P'.   Since collagen is the protein responsible for maintaining the integrity of the 'ground substance' as well as the tendons, ligaments and cartilage, and as it is also the support for the dermis and for the blood vessels, PCOs can be highly effective for maintaining this matrix system within the body.   It will 1) crosslink collagen fibers, thus reinforcing the connective tissues and 2) prevent free radical damage with its potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging action, 3) inhibit enzymatic cleavage of collagen by enzymens secreted by white blood cells during inflammation and by microbes during infection, 4) prevent the release and synthesis of compounds that promote inflammation such as histamine, serine proteases, prostaglandins and leukotrienes.   Collagen is essential for preventing bruising and varicose veins.   Detailed toxicology studies have shown grape seed extract to be without toxicity and well-tolerated.

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ŠJamie Longstreet 1996-2004